Monetization of Environmental Externalities (Emissions) from Bioenergy
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Bioenergy from agriculture is today in the heart of sustainable development, integrating its key components: environment and climate change, energy economics and energy supply, agriculture, rural and social development. Each bioenergy production route presents externalities that must be assessed in order to compare one bioenergy route to another (bio)energy route. The lack of primary and reliable data on externalities is, nevertheless, an important nontechnological barrier to the implementation of the best (bio)energy routes. In this article, we want to monetize one environmental externality from bioenergy: emissions (GHG: CO2, CH4, N2O, O3; CO, NOx, SO2, metal, and PM). We have to monetize emissions on the basis of their effects on health, global warming, and soil and water quality. Emissions will be quantified through Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and ECOINVENT database. Impacts on health will be monetized on the basis of mortality (number of life expectancy years lost multiplied by Value Of Life Year (VOLY)) and morbidity (number of ill persons multiplied by Cost Of Illness (COI)). Impacts on global warming will be monetized by Benefits Transfers from the Stern Review and its critics. Finally, impacts on soil and water quality will be monetized by Averting Behaviour or Defensive Expenses methods. Monetization results will be gathered, weighted, and incorporated in states and firms’ decisionmaking tools. They would enhance capacity of policy makers and managers to chose the best (bio)energy routes.
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